Search results “Bronze age copper mining in america”
Missing Michigan Copper: Ancient copper mines in U.P. Updated version
Had to make a few amendments A reading from ancient America Donald J. McMahon Symbologist/Researcher on the missing copper from Michigan. was there an ancient prehistoric PreDeluvian worldwide culture existing? People like Columbus were useful fools used as pawns, I never understood how it is Columbus gets the title of the one who discovered America when he didn't even land there, he landed way south It's not like he discovered Virginia or New York. He didn't even land in the US. Mainstream historians, archeology, geology All of the-ology's are in line with the church still. when you put them together it spells theology! Music from Doug Maxwell/Media right productions.video source material from http://ancientamerica.com/missing-pre... and Science frontiers - http://www.science-frontiers.com/cat-... Also music from Les Hayden" Not Really" I can no longer find it NOTE: When I mention the singling out the first "White man" to see Michigan copper, What it should have maybe been was the first Spaniard to see Michigan copper.Would he then represent all Spaniards? I would think not Or European man one can not clump people according to what shade of brown they are.Have you ever seen the experiment a teacher did with her students where each day she would designate a certain eye color that was to be ostracized for the day and right away the kids saw the schism of it all, for example, today all kids except those with blue eyes get to enjoy ice cream while blue-eyed kids must watch the others eat it something like that, I heard a wise person once say if you hate something you will come back in the next life as that what you hated, and I think that is a very good approach to take whether true or not . Just my thoughts on that, to be that way but it just continues Mike Wallace asked The actor Morgan Freeman how should we deal with it and he replied " Just stop talking about" I liked that answer. Indeed
Views: 12779 Greg Jay
"Prehistoric Alien Mines" Found On Lake Superior?
Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/MysteryHistory Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MysteryHistoryBook/ Lake Superior, the largest of the north American Great Lakes, it is also the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. Believe to have first been inhabited 10,000 years ago after the retreat of the last Ice Age However, there exists copper mines upon many of the lakes islands, which many researchers have concluded to be prehistoric. A sophisticated array of tunnels litter the islands, or more specifically all of north America. Scarred by ancient mine pits as deep as 150 feet. Carbon-14 testing of wood remains found in sockets of copper artefacts indicated that they are at least 5700 years old. Although many have suggested that artefacts and evidence at some sites, has suggested a date far older than what has been put forward. For example, some investigators believe that the mines were not even built by humans, but are the remains of a sophisticated mining operation that was once undertaken by alien visitors many thousands of years ago. Similar in scale to the ancient Carolina Mica mines, Mica being a material which we use in electrical components. The ancient copper mines on Superiors isle royale for example, although predictable disputed, produced over 750,000 tons of copper for a sophisticated group of ancient, mystery miners. Findings published in 1961 within, “Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, by Roy Drier and Joseph Du Temple. It must be noted that all of these pregistoric mines show evidence of being abruptly abandoned, whether this is evidence of the death of an unknown king or queen, or evidence for catastrophe is unknown, all along lake shore are vestiges of this once highly successful, ancient operation. The most astonishing of remnants catalogued publicly, has to be the enormous lump of pure copper, found in 1771, near the bank of the Ontonagon river. In 1945 it was floated down river on a raft by a james k paul, and was eventually appropriated by an agent of the united states government, it was then shipped to Detroit and on to Washington, where it eventually slipped into the bowels of the Smithsonian. Known as the Ontonagon Boulder it weighs 3,708 pounds, it was apparently well known to Native Americans. According to the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, the boulder was used by tribe members to make offerings to its “manitou” or spirit, to seek improvement in their health and well-being. Just how old is the Ontonagon Boulder? Or indeed the mine in which it came from? Although many would like you to believe the mines are less than 5000 years of age, we think many factors surrounding them, suggest they are far older than that. Our Twitter: https://twitter.com/Mysterytweetery? Or Steemit: https://steemit.com/@mysteryhistory http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/lake-superior-mines-old-copper-culture.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_Royale
Views: 190460 Mystery History
Don Spohn - Ancient Copper Mining
2016 - Copper Country Ancient Sites Conservancy Conference.
Views: 3803 Todd Rongstad
EVIDENCE! Solomon's Mines are here! It's Atlantean=Viking trade in America! Ruled Egypt!
We explore the ports of King Solomon's Mines in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan! I have always wanted to recreate Rider Haggard's story! This is I suppose one way of doing it! We visit the BIGGEST copper and gold mines of Ancient Times. Where else for Solomon's mines but here. Examine the facts... "In those days the Atlantic was navigable". The question is 'why'. For trade! Trading what? Copper ingots! (Orichalcum) which was controlled by none other than "Atlantis" = sunken UK/Doggerland! Apparently the mines were mined especially around 3000 BC. This was after the time of the sinking of most of UK/Doggerland, but not all of it. This is the bulk of the Ancient Irish = Viracocha trade with America! This ties into line with the Atlantean story of Atlanteans, ie Vikings trying to conquer everybody. After seeing this video, it's hard to dispute that the Vikings = Atlanteans may have controlled Egypt at one time as well! The similarities of Tut's Mask with Sutton Hoo mask raise another question: what's up with that!? Did Vikings actually conquer Egypt and is this why Tut has British DNA? The sheer, incredible amount of copper in the Keweenaw peninsula helped to turn the USA into a superpower. Did it do the same for 'Solomon?' All videos: http://www.whatisgiza.com/ Website: http://www.charleskos.com/ Old School Website htttp://charles.kos.id.au I now have a second channel. Self-help tips for success! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZBlwLbe40Ohjc9FH12LkLA Subbing would be much appreciated!
Views: 11904 Charles Kos
Ancient Native American Metallurgy of the Americas
Natives of North America began to heat/pound/craft copper into tools, jewelry and art which began in 8,000 B.C. from the ancient mines in the Great Lakes area. 1,000 BC - 600 AD Natives of S. America developed methods of smelting using ovens with temperatures of 700-1800 C to created alloys such as arsenic bronze, tumbaga, guanín, caracoli and more. Some Artifacts found north of Mesoamerica display evidence of smelting and alloys, some of these copper artifacts have air bubbles which indicates casting and smelting (Although little study exist of the Northern Tribes and Nations), arsenic bronze, silver, alloys and gold pieces have been found north of Mesoamerica, Natives of the Mississippian culture adopted the alloy and bronze age from Mesoamerica in 600 A.D. Natives of the Americas used zinc, nickel, iron, silver, copper, mica, gold, platinum metals among others.. 500 AD Natives of Ecuador discovered a method to work platinum (a metal difficult to melt) into objects, they invented a process known as "Sintering" - mixing granules of silver with platinum to lower the melting point of platinum, which is 1770C. The Inca used platinum to create jewelry and as an ingredient in alloys used to hardened tools and ornaments The Spanish learned how to melt platinum from the Inca. Platinum is now used has a protective coating in machinery. American Indian metallurgists also invented electroplating, a chemical process they used to gild copper and alloys that they made from silver, copper and gold.  The Moche, who lived on the coast of northern Peru, invented this process between 200 B.C. and A.D. 600. http://www.mpm.edu/collections/artifacts/anthropology/oldcopper/artifacts/ http://torrivent.blogspot.com/2009/11/native-metallurgy.html
Views: 20298 Thomas Oklahoma
Ancient Copper Work Shop found near St. Louis USA
Native Americans have been working with copper for nearly 10,000 years in North America:..Natives used a repeated steps of pounding, craving, heating and crafting to create jewelry, tools and weapons. There are mining sites that are old as 10,000 years old in the Great Lakes area and Canada...The ancient copper work shop at Cahokia was used between 800 A.D. to 1400 A.D...Natives did also have basic skills in smelting. Artifacts of silver, gold, alloys and arsenic bronze have been found in or near the ancient mounds of the Eastern United States the former home of the Mississippian Culture...Iron artifacts have been found in Canada and the Northeastern United States that were created by Native Americans. http://www.mpm.edu/collections/artifacts/anthropology/oldcopper/artifacts/ http://torrivent.blogspot.com/2009/11/native-metallurgy.html
Views: 23794 Thomas Oklahoma
ancient copper industry in MI video
Michigan's Upper Peninsula has been known as "Copper Country" for years. But mining copper in the region dates back before the birth of Jesus Christ. An ancient people created a copper industry in which Lake Superior area copper is now found all across North and South America. Luke Clyburn of the Noble Odyssey Foundation talks about this ancient industry.
Views: 14846 Don G
How Copper is Mined and Refined: A Story Of Copper 1951 US Bureau of Mines
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/geology_news_and_links.html "Tells the story of the mining and manufacture of copper from the crude ore to the finished product. lots of footage of giant machines, some blasting." Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_extraction_techniques Copper extraction techniques refers to the methods for obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). To do this, the ore is crushed. Then it must be roasted to convert sulfides to oxides, which are smelted to produce matte. Finally, it undergoes various refining processes, the final one being electrolysis. For economic and environmental reasons, many of the byproducts of extraction are reclaimed. Sulfur dioxide gas, for example, is captured and turned into sulfuric acid — which is then used in the extraction process... History The earliest evidence of cold-hammering of native copper comes from the excavation at Çaÿonü Tepesi in eastern Anatolia. The radiocarbon date is 7250 ± 250 BCE. Among the various items considered to be votive or amulets there was one that looked like a fishhook and one like an awl. An archaeological site in southeastern Europe (Serbia) contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 7,000 years ago. The find in June 2010 extends the known record of copper smelting by about 500 years, and suggests that copper smelting may have been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. Copper smelting technology gave rise to the Copper Age and then the Bronze Age. Concentration Most copper ores contain only a small percentage of copper metal bound up within valuable ore minerals, with the remainder of the ore being unwanted rock or gangue minerals, typically silicate minerals or oxide minerals for which there is often no value. The average grade of copper ores in the 21st century is below 0.6% copper, with a proportion of economic ore minerals (including copper) being less than 2% of the total volume of the ore rock. A key objective in the metallurgical treatment of any ore is the separation of ore minerals from gangue minerals within the rock. The first stage of any process within a metallurgical treatment circuit is accurate grinding or comminution, where the rock is crushed to produce small particles... Subsequent steps depend on the nature of the ore containing the copper. For oxide ores, a hydrometallurgical liberation process is normally undertaken, which uses the soluble nature of the ore minerals to the advantage of the metallurgical treatment plant. For sulfide ores, both secondary (supergene) and primary (hypogene), froth flotation is used to physically separate ore from gangue. For special native copper bearing ore bodies or sections of ore bodies rich in supergene native copper, this mineral can be recovered by a simple gravity circuit... Until the latter half of the 20th century, smelting sulfide ores was almost the sole means of producing copper metal from mined ores (primary copper production)... The copper is refined by electrolysis. The anodes cast from processed blister copper are placed into an aqueous solution of 3–4% copper sulfate and 10–16% sulfuric acid. Cathodes are thin rolled sheets of highly pure copper or, more commonly these days, reusable stainless steel starting sheets (as in the IsaKidd process). A potential of only 0.2–0.4 volts is required for the process to commence. At the anode, copper and less noble metals dissolve. More noble metals such as silver, gold, selenium, and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as anode slime, which forms a salable byproduct. Copper(II) ions migrate through the electrolyte to the cathode. At the cathode, copper metal plates out, but less noble constituents such as arsenic and zinc remain in solution unless a higher voltage is used. The reactions are: At the anode: Cu(s) → Cu2+(aq) + 2e− At the cathode: Cu2+(aq) + 2e− → Cu(s)...
Views: 58989 Jeff Quitney
Making History - Malachite & Copper
Early humans quickly find valuable uses for the first metals. The discovery of copper marks the end of the stone age and entry into more prolific times.
Views: 169721 AllHistories
Prehistoric copper smelting in a pit (louder version of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uHc4Hirexc)
How to turn copper ore into copper using Bronze Age techniques. For more information on our reconstruction of the earliest known copper smelting site in the UK (Pentrwyn, Great Orme) please visit: http://www.ancient-arts.org/pentrwyn%20exp%20report.pdf
Views: 13383 ancient1580
Pre Columbian Copper in North America
Pre Columbian Copper in North America
Views: 1703 vlad9vt
Finding Something Unexpected in an Abandoned Copper Mine
What an unexpected discovery! Paul and I never imagined finding what we found deep in this abandoned copper mine in Arizona. The Warren-Bisbee Mine's obscure entrance was basically a rabbit hole and didn't look too promising. However, once we gained entry by sliding in on our backs, the tunnels opened up and were surprisingly extensive. One tunnel led us deep into the mine to an inner area where we found -- something. Something impressive. Something rare that I've only seen a few times in abandoned mines over the last seven years or so. And it's all here in this video. Enjoy! Don't forget: New videos are released at midnight (Pacific Time) on the 1st, 10th, and 20th of each month. View and use the information in my videos at your own risk. All abandoned mines (especially the ones in my videos) are very dangerous and should not be entered under any circumstances. No potentially life-threatening, dangerous, or legal decisions and assumptions should be made based on information in my videos.
Great Orme Bronze Age Mines
Uncovered in 1987 during a scheme to landscape an area of the Great Orme, the copper mines discovered represent one of the most astounding archaeological discoveries of recent times. Dating back 4,000 years to the Bronze Age they change our views about the ancient people of Britain and their civilized and structured society 2,000 years before the Roman invasion. Over the past 28 years mining engineers, cavers and archaeologists have been slowly uncovering more tunnels and large areas of the surface landscape to reveal what is now thought to be the largest prehistoric mine, so far discovered in the world.
Views: 206 Ricky Gray
Smelting copper ore (geothite) from the Great Orme Mines in a pit furnace.
A very brief (and raw!) film on smelting copper ore (geothite) from the Prehistoric mines on the Great Orme using a reconstructed Bronze Age furnace based on one excavated at Pentrywyn on the Great Orme. Work carried out as part of Alan Williams (University of Liverpool) analysis of Bronze Age metals and ores. We will be putting up a more detailed film on this soon, in the meantime visit http://www.ancient-arts.org/pentrwyn%20exp%20report.pdf for more information.
Views: 6063 ancient1580
Out of Place Artifacts, The Michigan Tablets
Alex Koritz shares out of place artifacts with the AHRF, the controversial history of the thousands of ancient writings on tablets that his family once owned. These anceint tablets were found in North America by the tens of thousands, over a period that covered hundreds of years. Main stream academia not wanting to admit that there was inter continental travel between the old and new world before columbus declared them a fraud. Because of the old world languages contained on them and because of some of the biblical scenes some of them contained they were immediately dismissed. New evidences have been found to support the validity of these tablets. Glen Beck did an entire show on these artifacts in support of there authenticity. Alex shares his families insight on them and how you can view them for your self in person to see this amazing collection that is not known about. The AHRF thanks Alex for taking the time to share this information with us. https://www.amazon.com/shop/terrycarter?ref=ac_inf_hm_vp Send letters and info to: Terry Carter 51 W. center #304 Orem, Utah 84057 [email protected] https://www.amazon.com/shop/terrycarter?ref=ac_inf_hm_vp Visit our web pages and forum http://www.ancientlosttreasures.com http://www.ancienthistoricalresearchfoundation.com http://www.mysteryglyphs.com Also look us up on face book at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/723774731015622/
Views: 337583 Terry Carter
12 Biggest Mines
These huge open-pits in the ground can either be called mines or quarry and they give us amazing things like gold, silver, and copper! Subscribe to Talltanic http://goo.gl/wgfvrr 7. The Barrick Goldstrike Mine Owned and operated by Barrick Gold, which is the largest gold mining company, the goldstrike mine happens to be the largest gold mine in all of North America. Located in Eureka County, Nevada, the goldstrike mine is comprised of 3 different mines, the larger of the three is the Betze-Post open-pit mine, the Meikle, and the Rodeo, both of which are found underground. This complex of mines is also the largest Carlin-type mine in the world. First opened way back in 1986, the mine not only produces gold but silver as well, which just so happens to be where Nevada gets its famous nickname, the “Silver State”, from. 6. The Oyu Tolgoi Mine The name for this combined open-pit mining project translates to Turquoise Hill and is located in the southern region of the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. The mines that are filled with gold-copper ore deposits are actually relatively new and were only recently discovered back in 2001 by the Canadian company Ivanhoe Mines. It’s expected that the mine will reach full capacity in the year 2021. It’s believed that this mine contains around 2,700,000 tons of copper and another 1.7 million ounces of gold. Like with all other mines, the environmental impact that the Oyu Tolgoi mine is often criticized since it is located in such a dry area and uses more than one billion gallons of water each month. 5. The Chuquicamata (choo-kee-kə-mah-tə) Mine In terms of volume, the chuquicamata mine, or the “Chuqui” mine as it’s more commonly known is the second deepest open-pit mine on the planet. This mine can be found in the northern area of Chile where its main export is that of copper. This has been the country’s main export and staple that is crucial to how the people of Chile rely on an income and it’s here that the metal is called “Chile’s salary” ever since they became dependent on the copper industry back when the first World War ended. Copper actually makes up about a third of all the country’s foreign trade but that 33 percent was once at a high percentage of 75% a few years earlier. 4. The Dionysos Marble Quarry This quarry lies on the Penteli Mountain in the town and municipality of Dionysos, Attica in Greece. It’s here that the world famous Dionysos pentelicon marble is extracted. The quarry has been opened for more than a 100 years and it was back in 1949 that it was owned by the Dionysos Marble Company. The quarry currently has 2 underground sites and 9 above ground sites where the marble is extracted. The marble here is protected by law and is solely used for the Acropolis Restoration Project and other ancient buildings in Athens. 3. The Udachnaya Pipe The name of this open-pit mine literally translates to lucky pipe and can be found right outside of the Arctic Circle in Sakha Republic, Russia. This mine was discovered way back in June of 1955 and is believed to contain around 225.8 million carats of diamonds with an estimated 10.4 million carats harvested annually. The diamond mine was taken over by the Russian diamond company Alrosa back in 2010. This is mine also happens to be the third deepest open-pit mine in the world at a depth of 1,970 feet. 2. The Mir Mine Occasionally called the Mirny Mine, this was once a former open-pit diamond mine that is located in Mirny, Eastern Siberia, Russia. This mine reaches a depth of 1,722 feet deep, along with a diameter of 3,900 feet making it one of the largest excavated holes to ever exist. The mine was first discovered back in June of 1955 by a group of three Soviet geologists. It proved to be rather difficult as it seemed like there was always one problem arising after another. The cold winter months provided harsh conditions that slowed production, the mine suffered a flood in the 90’s, and surface operations would cease in June of 2001 with underground operations still moving forward until the whole mine was permanently shut down in 2004. 1. The Bingham Canyon Mine Known by the locals at the Kennecott Copper Mine, the Bingham Canyon Mine is located in the southwest region of Salt Lake City, Utah, in the United States. This massive chasm is known for being the largest man-made excavation in all of the world. Owned by the Rio Tinto Group, the production of this mine was started an astonishing 110-years ago and since then the mine measures at being 2.5 miles long, 0.6 miles deep, and covers a distance of 1,900 acres. The mine endured a tremendous landslide back in 2013 and then a smaller one later that same year.
Views: 510836 Talltanic
Riches & Remains: The Legacy of Vermont Copper Mining
This documentary is an in-depth exploration of the 150-year history of Vermont's copper mines from 1803 to 1958 and the subsequent Superfund environmental cleanup of the Elizabeth Mine.
Views: 7977 Phyl Harmon
Ancient Mining Techniques[History Documentary]HD
Ancient mining techniques go well back into our history – well back into ourprehistory, in fact. As we progressed through the Stone Age, with more and more sophisticated tools and weapons being designed and developed, so too,our need for more and better raw materials for these implements. Stone and flint led to copper, then bronze, gold, silver, iron… all in the name of progress, war, technology, vanity or greed. In fact, it’s ironic (pun intended) that the substance prized and even mined by our ancient ancestors for some of the earliest stone tools and weapons – flint – was later a hindrance encountered by Classical miners – who were in many cases also Classical minors – in gold mining galleries described by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD as “thought to be the hardest thing that exists, except greed for gold, which is the most stubborn of all things. Ancient Chinese Explorers:https://youtu.be/RcRFaDTxYic Inside China`s Great Pyramids:https://youtu.be/0i6ywQW8Btc The Military of Ancient China:https://youtu.be/63aE4iceuj0 Japan:Memoirs of a Secret Empire:https://youtu.be/iGuhu5lbDlk Ancient Egyptian Weapons:https://youtu.be/LwCeHhSKkHU Secrets of Göbekli Tepe:https://youtu.be/ypuf_QnzCk0 The Lost Mayan Cvilization:https://youtu.be/_2Ork2m0SAk Mysteries of Easter Island:https://youtu.be/lM_Te7ZPMTY
Views: 266345 Documentary Channel
Ancient mining evidence
Support the channel https://www.paypal.me/philippdruzhinin Ancient mining evidence this video describes the block caving mining procedures of Ancient atlanteans. We can be witness of different crazy ocasions that proove the possibility of underground block caving mining of ancients and even in modern time.
Views: 6914 Philipp Druzhinin
Timna: Israel's Ancient Copper Mines
Located 17 miles north of Eilat, Timna, once an extensive network of sophisticated cooper mines, is now a major tourist attraction in Israel's south.
Views: 7481 Jewish National Fund
How Copper is Mined and Refined: "Copper Mining and Smelting" 1949 Viking Pictures
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ 'ACCOUNT OF AN OPEN-PIT COPPER MINE IN OPERATION. ILLUSTRATES THE MAIN STEPS IN EXTRACTING PURE COPPER FROM ORE. PICTURES THE PROCESSES OF BLASTING, LOADING and DISPOSING OF WASTE ROCK, LOADING ORE IN RAILROAD CARS, CRUSHING and WASHING.' see also: Bingham Canyon Copper Mine, Utah http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7E779kues8&list=PL33B1A9216BB65F7A&index=18 Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys. The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later shortened to сuprum. Its compounds are commonly encountered as copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to minerals such as turquoise and have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper, both by itself and as part of pigments. Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives. In sufficient amounts, they are poisonous to higher organisms; at lower concentrations it is an essential trace nutrient to all higher plant and animal life. The main areas where copper is found in animals are tissues, liver, muscle and bone. Copper, silver and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table, and they share certain attributes: they have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled d-electron shell and are characterized by high ductility and electrical conductivity. The filled d-shells in these elements do not contribute much to the interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds. Contrary to metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is usually supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms. The low hardness of copper partly explains its high electrical (59.6×106 S/m) and thus also high thermal conductivity, which are the second highest among pure metals at room temperature.[4] This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature mostly originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are relatively weak for a soft metal.[2] The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. As with other metals, if copper is placed against another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Together with osmium (bluish), and gold (yellow), copper is one of only three elemental metals with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells... Most copper is mined or extracted as copper sulfides from large open pit mines in porphyry copper deposits that contain 0.4 to 1.0% copper. Examples include Chuquicamata in Chile, Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah, United States and El Chino Mine in New Mexico, United States. According to the British Geological Survey, in 2005, Chile was the top mine producer of copper with at least one-third world share followed by the United States, Indonesia and Peru. The amount of copper in use is increasing and the quantity available is barely sufficient to allow all countries to reach developed world levels of usage.
Views: 5713 Jeff Quitney
Michigan Copper Mining: The Black Powder Era
America's Industrial Revolution was founded on copper mined from Michigan's Upper Peninsula. James Cassell, Collector of History, gives a fascinating look at the "Michigan Minecraft" tools and techniques used at the start of the rush that defined our state's history!
Views: 25959 RochesterHillsTV
Journey to the Copper Age
In this May 12, 2013 Sunday at the Met program, discover how the introduction of metal production over 6,000 years ago created a "metallurgy revolution" that sparked social change in the southern Levant. Examine elaborate and prestigious metal objects created in this region, including crowns, scepters, and mace heads. Learn more about the first Israeli-Jordanian-American-German international experimental archaeology expedition, led by the speaker, to locate the Copper Age trade route used by the earliest metalworkers in the Holy Land. Thomas Evan Levy is the Distinguished Professor and Norma Kershaw Chair in the Archaeolgy of Ancient Israel and Neighboring Lands at the University of California, San Diego. This Sunday at the Met is made possible by the Helen Diller Family.
Views: 24212 The Met
Ancient Copper Smelting
Views: 5346 Shana Han
Copper Through The Ages - The History Of Copper - History TV
Copper Through The Ages - The History Of Copper - History TV Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as Sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is found as a pure metal in nature, and this was the first source of the metal to be used by humans, ca. 8,000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, ca. 5,000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, ca. 4,000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, ca. 3,500 BC.[3] In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium (metal of Cyprus), later corrupted to сuprum, from which the words copper (English), cuivre (French), Koper (Dutch) and Kupfer (German) are all derived.[4] The commonly encountered compounds are copper(II) salts, which often impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite, malachite, and turquoise, and have been used widely and historically as pigments. Architectural structures built with copper (usually roofing elements) corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper, both in the elemental metal and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are also used as bacteriostatic agents, fungicides, and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, muscle, and bone.[5] The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Hence a healthy human weighing 60 kilogram contains approximately 0.1g of copper. However, this small amount is essential to the overall human well-being. Read More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper Subscribe For More Documentary Films: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsc7tosS2c0T-4_y94j23vw?sub_confirmation=1
Views: 6035 History TV
USING LAKES TO MAP ANCIENT COPPER MINING, by Dr. David P. Pompeani, at the Copper and Culture Conference on Prehistoric Metal Working in the Lake Superior Region August 7, 2015, Houghton, Michigan.
Views: 5880 Todd Rongstad
How Lead is Mined & Refined: A Story Of Lead 1948 US Bureau of Mines; Lead Metal Mining & Refining
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/geology_news_and_links.html "Portrays mining operations in the lead belt of southeast Missouri--the crushing of ore, smelting, refining and other steps in the production of pig lead." Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because it is widespread, easy to extract and easy to work with. It is highly malleable as well as easy to smelt. Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BCE have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey. In the early Bronze Age, lead was used with antimony and arsenic. The largest preindustrial producer of lead was the Roman economy, with an estimated annual output of 80,000 tonnes, which was typically won as a by-product of extensive silver smelting. Roman mining activities occurred in Central Europe, Roman Britain, the Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor and Hispania which alone accounted for 40% of world production. Roman lead pipes often bore the insignia of Roman emperors (see Roman lead pipe inscriptions). Lead plumbing in the Latin West may have been continued beyond the age of Theoderic the Great into the medieval period. Many Roman "pigs" (ingots) of lead figure in Derbyshire lead mining history and in the history of the industry in other English centers. The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings. In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn. Alchemists accordingly used Saturn's symbol (the scythe, ♄) to refer to lead. Up to the 17th century, tin was often not distinguished from lead: lead was called plumbum nigrum (literally, "black lead"), while tin was called plumbum candidum (literally, "bright lead")... Most ores contain less than 10% lead, and ores containing as little as 3% lead can be economically exploited. Ores are crushed and concentrated by froth flotation typically to 70% or more. Sulfide ores are roasted, producing primarily lead oxide and a mixture of sulfates and silicates of lead and other metals contained in the ore. Lead oxide from the roasting process is reduced in a coke-fired blast furnace to the metal. Additional layers separate in the process and float to the top of the metallic lead. These are slag (silicates containing 1.5% lead), matte (sulfides containing 15% lead), and speiss (arsenides of iron and copper). These wastes contain concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium, and bismuth that can be recovered economically, as can their content of unreduced lead. Metallic lead that results from the roasting and blast furnace processes still contains significant contaminants of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, zinc, copper, silver, and gold. The melt is treated in a reverberatory furnace with air, steam, and sulfur, which oxidizes the contaminants except silver, gold, and bismuth. The oxidized contaminants are removed by drossing, where they float to the top and are skimmed off. Since lead ores contain significant concentrations of silver, the smelted metal also is commonly contaminated with silver. Metallic silver as well as gold is removed and recovered economically by means of the Parkes process. Desilvered lead is freed of bismuth according to the Betterton-Kroll process by treating it with metallic calcium and magnesium, which forms a bismuth dross that can be skimmed off. Very pure lead can be obtained by processing smelted lead electrolytically by means of the Betts process. The process uses anodes of impure lead and cathodes of pure lead in an electrolyte of silica fluoride...
Views: 13114 Jeff Quitney
Presentation by Dr. Thomas Pleger, Great Lakes Archaeologist and President of Lake Superior State University, at the Copper and Culture Conference on Prehistoric Metal Working in the Lake Superior Region, August 7-8, 2015, sponsored by the Copper Country Ancient Sites Conservancy please support preservation and education by contributing at coppercountryancientsitesconservancy.com or on the CCASC Facebook page.
Views: 9255 Todd Rongstad
ANCIENT MINERS ?(1/2)MINE RAT PRODUCTIONS  http://minerat.wordpress.com
MINE RAT PRODUCTIONS http://minerat.wordpress.com This mine located on lake superior is at present day is what was the shoreline 10,000 years ago.the lack of drill holes or blasting caused me to rethink its age.early copper culture on lake superior goes back 8 to 9 thousand years.
Traditional Bronze Age Copper Smelting with James Dilley - Ancient Craft
As part of a Neolithic skills week at Parc Cwm Darran, James gave a demonstration of traditional bronze age copper smelting. Copper smelts at approx 1100 degrees centigrade. Bellows are used to keep the temperature up. A small pit is dug and a crucible filled with alternate layers of blue malachite and charcoal is placed into the charcoal furnace. The whole process takes around half an hour.
Views: 445 baarbaarathesheep
Keweenaw Peninsula Abandoned Copper Mines
A slideshow of some of the abandoned copper mines we visited in the Keweenaw Peninsula. Some were more difficult to get to than others, but the history was fascinating.
Views: 19635 firechasers
Expanded Perspectives Podcast-Episode#1-Bigfoot, Ancient Copper Mines, Rock Lake
On this show we talk about the latest bigfoot pictures, the ancient copper mines of America and Rock Lake.
14 ANCIENT American Discoveries
From the famous Chichen Itza, to new discoveries at the historical Alamo, these are 14 ANCIENT American Discoveries ! 8. El Tajin ( tahin) El Tajin is another site that can be found in Mexico. Not to be confused with the seasoning, it is one of the largest and most significant sites for the Classic Mesoamerican civilization. The strange part of this ruin is the abundance of unique architecture that can be found nowhere else in the entire Mesoamerican world. The site attracts 650,000 visitors a year and it also is the site of an annual cultural festival called the Cumbre Tajin Festival. Interestingly, the site actually has over 20 different ball courts. The site has been a protected World Heritage site since 1992. 7. Uxmal [oos-mahl] Uxmal is another ancient Mayan city that resides in the list of most important Mayan cities along with Palenque and Chichen. The structures located at this site are often cited as the most important architectural example of that region and time. The most prominent feature of the location is the main pyramid called the pyramid of the magician. The location has been heavily restored to promote tourism as well. 6. The Alamo The battle of the alamo was a deeply important event in Texas history and the site of the battle has become a monument to that battle. Given its importance to the American west and the formation of the Texas state, this not so ancient site has still become the subject of an archaeological excavation that is turning up some surprising finds. The excavations are taking place because of an effort to create a new plan for the historical site. 5. Xochicalco (hoochi kal ko) Xochicalco is a unique city because it was formed by Mayans but because of it’s short distance from the Aztec capital there are heavy influences from both civilizations. In its heyday, this city would have been a melting pot of culture. As much as an ancient city could have been. The city was also a major trade destination due to its location. The city even has ancient tunnels beneath the city so that travel from one building to the next would have been made easier. The influence of the Aztec and Mayan cultures can be felt not only in the architecture but in the artwork throughout the ruin as well. The ruin houses three ball courts, several different pyramids, and sweat baths. There is also a wealth of art to be studied at the location with each piece of art having a noticeable blend of Mayan and Aztec influences. 4. Coba ( ko ba) The Coba archaeological site is huge. That is not an exaggeration. The entire site area is 80 km or 50 miles. The site contains two lagoons and there are still 20,000 structures that remain unexcavated. The site sees little tourism because of its location. The location was estimated to have only 50,000 occupants at its peak. The first modern road to the site was opened in 1970 and it has made it somewhat easier to excavate. There are temples along with several different residential houses. 3. Abo Ruins (ah bo) Abo is small pueblo ruin in New Mexico that sees steady tourism. The ruins date back to the 14th century and it was a major trade location at its peak. The ruins remain mostly unexcavated but, the site is protected as a National Historic landmark. It was added to the list in 1962. Abo is also the name used for a formation of red sandstone beds that are located near the ruins. There are tours that can be taken of the site and a guided hike through what was once the city. 2. Chaco Culture National Historical Park (cha ko ) The Chaco culture national park that has the densest concentration of pueblos in the American Southwest. The park can be found in New Mexico. This location has the most sweeping ruins north of Mexico. The site was a source of culture for the Ancient Pueblo people. This location features 15 major buildings that were the largest constructs in the US until the 19th century. There is also evidence of archaeoastronomy in the area with a sun dagger that was used to measure the solstices and equinoxes. In addition, many of the building were built to measure the sun and moon's cycles. The abandoning of the location was believed to be caused by climate change and a 50-year drought that began in 1130. The site isn’t open to the public anymore because of the fear of degradation of the site. 1.Chichén Itzá [chee-chen eet-sah, eet-suh] Chichén Itzá didn’t get its spot on the eight wonders of the world list for nothing. It’s one of the largest seats of the Mayan empire, located in Mexico. It’s the most popular archaeological site in Mexico with more than 1.4 million visitors annually. Although the ruin lies in Northern Mexico, archaeologists have found architecture similar to the kind that can be found in central Mexico around that time which leads to the theory that the Mayan people traveled throughout Mexico. Subscribe to Hindered Thoughts http://goo.gl/d3U3RP
Views: 78331 Hindered Thoughts
10 Biggest Ancient Mysteries In Copper
Daily upload, subscribe for more► https://goo.gl/PoeQCx --- 10 Biggest Ancient Mysteries In Copper Facebook: https://goo.gl/QEjBxt Thank you to myuuji for the background music!
Views: 5834 List OMG
Making History - Medieval Mining
Since the Bronze age the strength and security of a civilization depended on their access to various metals such as gold, silver, copper, tin, and Iron. Finding and extracting these metals proved to be extremely difficult
Views: 13406 AllHistories
Ancient Copper Work Shop found near St. Louis USA
Natives of North America began to heat/pound/craft copper into tools, jewelry and art which began in 8000 B.C. from the ancient mines in the Great Lakes area. Natives of North America began to heat/pound/craft copper into tools, jewelry and art which began in 8000 B.C. from the ancient mines in the Great Lakes area. Native Americans have been working with copper for nearly 10000 years in North America:..Natives used a repeated steps of pounding, craving, heating and .
Views: 44 Charles Webster
Secret American Archaeology May 2015
For more than 25 years Carl Lehrburger has studied archaeological and sacred sites in North America, with a focus on ancient peoples in America before Columbus. He discussed his latest work revealing extensive evidence for pre-Columbian explorers in ancient America, such as Celtic relics. He personally explored some of the New England sites highlighted in Barry Fell's groundbreaking book America B.C., and became convinced that Celtic writing and relics, thousands of years old, were indeed genuine, and that migrations to America came over many different periods and waves. These migrations included both trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic visitors, and one of the biggest drivers of this ancient travel was the quest for gold and silver-- in the Eastern US copper mining took place, while gold and silver were mined on the West Coast, he said. The ancient Celts left evidence of their writing system in New England, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, as well as latter day Celts leaving inscriptions in West Virginia, he said. One of the most important examples is the site called America's Stonehenge, located in southern New Hampshire, which he characterized as a large area of Celtic stone constructions, dating back 2,000 years. A town in Arizona also dates back to this era, he suggested, and was inhabited by a Roman colony, who left behind their historical record on lead plates. Lehrburger believes there's been a deliberate attempt to keep America's true archaeological history hidden from the public.
Views: 31142 Disclosure Nation
Ancient quarry
Canyon de Chelly National Monument - Reserve (a national monument) in the United States. Located in northeastern Arizona within the Navajo reservation. Access to the canyon is limited, visitors may visit it only with a guide, usually because of the Navajo. The only exception to this rule is the tourist trail "Ruins of the White House." The most amazing thing in the canyon - a vertical wall. In addition, they look like they are covered with a plaster, mostly likely the same breed as the arrays themselves. What were they mining in sandstone, is the question? Canyon de Chelly is horizontal layers of sandstone, which raises the question of, where did the vertical "lines" come from? I went on Google Earth, looked close up, but then found something interesting. If you back away to see where it shows the borders of the "Four Corner States" from high up, there is a big "circle" of mountain ranges in which "canyons" are found, including the Grand Canyon. Canyon de Chelly is in the middle of that circle. The geology of Arizona contains some great copper deposits that are still mined today, and also gold and silver. There are also precious gemstones and minerals that are formed with copper, and petrified wood. Perhaps Canyon de Chelly was an exploratory mining operation which didn't yield as much (if anything) as the Grand Canyon (much larger and bigger). There seems to be one point of entrance to the canyon with branches coming off of it. Another question arose, If there is a Petrified Forest National Park of "petrified wood" ("Petrified Forest National Park is a United States national park in Navajo and Apache counties in northeastern Arizona" -- and Canyon de Chelly is located in northeastern Arizona), then perhaps the mining is taking place at a site much like the one in the video you did on Lukomorie. Just some thoughts to add to the mix. I think it's a quarry of Atlantis. Support the channel https://www.paypal.me/philippdruzhinin
Views: 23806 Philipp Druzhinin
The History of the Michigan Tablets
This is intended to give you the basic history of the collection and some information regarding why the artifacts are generally dismissed as fraudulent. More likely, there are fraudulent artifacts mixed it with authentic artifacts.
Views: 2324 Rockies To Cumorah
The Search For Ancient Americans
Earliest societies are investigated.
Views: 3398 Nowhere Man
HEBREWS were in Ancient America - SOLID Evidence
Here is undeniable evidence that Hebrew people were in ancient North America... and you can see it on Google Earth. Check out these other videos I've been working on about the Hopewell Moundbuilder civilization and how they correlate with the people of the Book of Mormon. Watch the full playlist (so far to date) here: http://bit.ly/2rHSEZf Visit the FIRM Foundation website at http://www.BookofMormonEvidence.org Also visit http://www.LDSArchaeology.com Watch Wayne May and Rod Meldrum on YouTube Also, watch "Nephite Explorer" and "Hidden In the Heartland" on http://www.truenorthtv.org Study the Moundbuilders, and The Book of Mormon To get a FREE Bible and Book of Mormon, call (888) 537-2200 or visit http://www.mormon.org
Views: 61202 Michael P
Blackbeard's Indigenous Illuminati: North American Negus, Our Lost Forgotten Identity XXV
Mastodon, copper mining, copper colored people, Minoans, Georgia, Ft. Benning, Metcalf stone, mammoths, Mound Builders, Master Masons, pyramid mountains, elephants, Mediterranean Sea, Ancient Greece, bronze age, Hopwell, Adena, Olmec, Mississippians, Old World, Southern Europe, Central Europa, Old Egypt, elephant smoking pipe, tobacco, parrots, Midwest Ancient Civilizations, Iowa, military bases, Alabama Autochthons, Meru
Views: 1451 Blackbeard Mirage
Copper Mining Threatens Ancient Buddhist City
A documentary released on Netflix in January 2017, "Saving Mes Aynak," details the struggle to save an ancient Buddhist city in Afghanistan from a Chinese mining company that wants to harvest copper below it.
METALS - Mining in Michigan: Copper, Gold, Silver and Iron  -  Lansing, MI
I visit the state Historical center in Lansing Michigan and show off some of the mining treasures. Can you believe the TWO TON Copper nugget??? Just plain wild!!! It was certainly not all fun and games, and some people did get hurt....but this is a key part of Michigan history!! If you live in Michigan and haven't visited the Capitol, you should!!! Have a good one! Peace
12 Newly Discovered Ancient Cities
From the amazing The Lost City of Heracleion, to the ancient The Lowland Hundred, here are 12 Newly Discovered Ancient Cities. Subscribe to Talltanic http://goo.gl/wgfvrr 5 - The Lost City of Heracleion In 2000, French underwater archaeologist, Franck Goddio, was searching for 18-century warships in Abu Qir Bay, near the canopic mouth of the Nile river, approximately ten meters beneath the waves, when a giant stone face emerged. The face belonged to a massive stone statue of Thonis-Heracleion, completely submerged, around six and a half kilometres off the Egyptian city of Alexandria's coastline. Franck also discovered 64 ships, 700 anchors, gold coins, more statues, some which towered 16 feet high, ruins of temples and several sarcophagi. The ancient city appeared to contain networks of canals, small sanctuaries and many forgotten dwellings. Archaeologists believe Heracleion City may have beginnings dating to 12th century BC, but vanished beneath the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the 3rd of 2nd century AD, though no one knows why. 4 - Urkesh The city Urkesh flourished between 4,000 and 1,300 BC, the kingdom controlled trade routes between Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as the highlands copper mines. The rich and powerful city was home to the Hurrian civilisation. In mythological texts, this metropolis was called, Home to the Primordial God. Other than that, historians know practically nothing about this ancient Arab civilisation. In the 1980s, Tell Mozan was discovered, a towering mound which hid an ancient palace, temple and open plaza. A decade later, further excavations uncovered a royal palace with Hurrian written scriptures, as well as a flight of descending stairs and an underground shaft believed to be the Urkesh Passage to the Netherworld. Leading researchers to conclude that Tell Mozan, was actually, the lost, buried city of Urkesh. 3 - The Akkadian Empire About 28 miles from Dohuk Iraq, researchers have discovered evidence of a Bronze-Age City, which dates back to around 3,000 BC. This ancient city is believed to have thrived for over a millennium, the walls date back to approximately 2,700 BC. Pieces of tablets, which are said to be from around 1,300 BC, were also discovered on site, the tablet fragments have led to implications that this place once housed a temple to the Mesopotamian weather God Adad. Roads and ruins of a palatial building left over from the Bronze Age, roughly 1,800 BC have also been unearthed here. All of this evidence, as well as a statue of a God-king, named Naram-Sin, point to this ancient city having once belonged to the Akkadian Empire which dates to the years 2340 to 2200 BC. 2 - Helike The legend goes, that a confederation of 12 cities once flourished in ancient Greece, the Achaean League, its leader, the city Helike. One night in 373 BC, the metropolis was obliterated, some believe a massive earthquake followed by a tsunami from the Gulf of Corinth wiped the cities from the face of the Earth. The rescue party found no survivors, over time, the location was lost entirely. In the early 19th century speculations of this ancient Greek city began. Researchers speculated that the base could be buried near Achaea, by the Peloponnesian peninsula. In 2001, excavations for the ancient theorised city gathered steam as ruins of columns began to take shape beneath the layers of Earth. Finally, in 2012, the destruction layer and many ancient artefacts were uncovered, which has led many to believe, that this site, is indeed, the remains of the ancient city of Helike. 1 - The Lowland Hundred This kingdom of legend from ancient Wales is believed to have stood from the sixth century through the 17th century, before vanishing without a trace. The stories say, that the land was submerged under water when Mererid, a priestess of a fairy-well grew angry at the ruler, and caused the water from the well to overflow, sinking the kingdom into memory. A few decades ago, the emergence of prehistoric forests during some stormy weather in Cardigan Bay West Wales, led to the possibility that this kingdom was more than legend. Further investigations revealed a wattle walkway with associated posts, fossilised human and animal footprints, as well as some ancient tools. Researchers continue to search for the remainder of this primordial Welsh World, the remnants are believed to be buried under the Cardigan Bay waters, between Ramsey Island and Bardsey Island.
Views: 415839 Talltanic
Grimes Graves - Ancient flint mines documentary
Ancient flint mines documentary
Views: 8351 indeliblelink
Mining in Stone Age Peoples Built Technology in USA
After Freeport McMoran Chairman in Indonesia, Forbes Wilson explored Mining Mountain in West Papua in 1960, thus USA President John. F. Kennedy pushed Dutch to transferred the Administration of the Colony of West Papua to Indonesia. Also, Roberth. H. Hommer as Ford Foundation pushed Kennedy to pushed Dutch to transferred the "Stone Age Peoples " to Indonesia. The Exploration of Forbes was paid by Rockefeller in New York so his son Michael Rockefeller lost in West Papua in 1961. So, UN Secretrary General Daag Hammarsjold must killed because his planning to gave accept West Papua as UN Membership in UN General Assembly Sessions September 1961.
Primitive Technology: Forge Blower
I invented the Bow Blower, a combination of the bow drill and forge blower to make a device that can force air into a fire while being easy to construct from commonly occurring natural materials using only primitive technology. I began by fanning a fire with a piece of bark to increase its temperature. It is this basic principle I improved on throughout the project. Next, I made a rotary fan from two pieces of bark that slot together at right angles to each other to form a simple 4 bladed paddle wheel about 20 cm in diameter and 5 cm tall. The blades of the fan were not angled and were designed only to throw air outwards away from the axle when spun. The rotor of the fan was made by splitting a stick two ways so it formed 4 prongs. The fan was then inserted into the prongs and the end lashed to hold it in place. Spinning the fan rotor back and forth between the palms of the hands fanned the fire. But only some of the wind generated by the fan reached the fire. The rest of it was blowing in other directions, effectively being wasted. So I built a fan housing from unfired clay to direct the air flow into the fire. This was basically an upturned pot with a hole in the top, a spout coming out of the side. The housing was about 25 cm wide and 8 cm tall. The hole in the top and the spout were both about 6 cm in diameter so that the air coming in roughly equalled the air coming out. The base of the fan rotor sat in a wooden socket placed in the ground to make it spin easier and the top of the rotor protruded from the hole in the top of the housing. Now when the fan spun, air entered the hole in the top of the housing and exited the spout in the side. Importantly, it doesn’t matter which way the fan spins, air always goes into the inlet and out the spout. Air is thrown out towards the walls of the housing and can only leave through the spout while the vacuum in the centre sucks new air into the housing through the inlet. A separate clay pipe called a tuyere was made to fit over the spout to direct air into the coals. This was done because the pipe that touches the fire can melt away so it’s better to make this part replaceable. Instead of making a large wheel and belt assembly to step up the speed of rotation, I opted for a 75 cm long bow. I made a frame to hold the rotor in place consisting of two stakes hammered into the ground with a socketed cross bar lashed on to hold the top of the rotor. I made bark fibre cordage and tied the end to a stick. I then looped the cord around the rotor and held the other end in the same hand holding the stick. I then pushed and pulled the bow causing the rotor to spin rapidly, forcing air into the fire. I made a simple mud furnace for the blower. Then I collected orange iron bacteria from the creek (iron oxide), mixed it with charcoal powder (carbon to reduce oxide to metal) and wood ash (flux to lower the melting point) and formed it into a cylindrical brick. I filled the furnace with charcoal, put the ore brick in and commenced firing. The ore brick melted and produced slag with tiny, 1mm sized specs of iron through it. My intent was not so much to make iron but to show that the furnace can reach a fairly high temperature using this blower. A taller furnace called a bloomery was generally used in ancient times to produce usable quantities of iron and consumed more charcoal, ore and labour. This device produces a blast of air with each stroke of the bow regardless of whether it is pushed or pulled. The bow makes it possible to operate the blower without using a complicated belt and wheel assembly used in traditional forge blowers. There is a brief pause at the end of each stroke where the fan stops to rotate in the other direction, but this is effectively no different to the intermittent blast of a double acting bellows of Europe or box bellows of Asia. The materials used (wood, bark, bark fibre and clay) are readily available on most continents. No leather, valves or precisely fitted piston gaskets are required as with other types of bellows. The cords for this device wear out often so a number of back up cords should be kept handy for quick replacement. In summary, this is an easy to make device that solves the problem of supplying forced combustion air required for high temperature furnaces and forges. Wordpress: https://primitivetechnology.wordpress.com/ Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=2945881&ty=h I have no face book page. Beware of fake pages.
Views: 36521818 Primitive Technology