This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:02:09 1 The Iranian constitution
00:03:47 2 Background
00:03:56 2.1 Iranian Revolution and Iran–Iraq War (1979–88)
00:05:24 2.2 Rafsanjani government (1989–97)
00:06:14 2.3 Khatami government (1997–2005)
00:07:48 2.4 Ahmadinejad government (2005–2013)
00:10:03 2.5 Rouhani government (2013–)
00:11:36 3 "Justice shares" plan
00:12:30 3.1 Implementation
00:13:14 3.2 Distribution
00:14:57 4 Criticism
00:15:40 5 Shares for workers
00:16:16 6 Iranian expatriates role
00:17:29 6.1 Investments
00:18:16 6.2 Expatriate fund
00:18:56 7 Foreign investment
00:19:23 7.1 Offshore fund
00:20:11 8 Top 100 Iranian companies
00:22:38 8.1 Valuation
00:23:21 9 Major companies listed for privatization
00:23:52 9.1 Banking and insurance
00:25:32 9.2 Industry
00:26:17 9.3 Utilities
00:27:27 9.4 Mines & metals
00:28:03 9.5 Transport
00:28:57 9.6 Telecommunication
00:31:07 9.7 Oil, gas and petrochemicals
00:35:20 10 See also
Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.
Learning by listening is a great way to:
- increases imagination and understanding
- improves your listening skills
- improves your own spoken accent
- learn while on the move
- reduce eye strain
Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.
Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio:
Other Wikipedia audio articles at:
Upload your own Wikipedia articles through:
Speaking Rate: 0.9774191965767909
Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C
"I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think."
According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005–2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange. The privatization effort is primarily backed by reformist members of the Iranian government and society who hope that privatization can bring about economic and social change.
In 2007, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei requested that government officials speed up implementation of the policies outlined in the amendment of Article 44, and move towards economic privatization. Khamenei also suggested that ownership rights should be protected in courts set up by the Justice Ministry; the hope was that this new protection would give an additional measure of security and encourage private investment. Despite these statements, true official backing for privatization remains very slow due to political reasons.
Some 80 percent of the companies subject to Article 44 of the Constitution would be transferred to public ownership, 40 percent of which will be conducted through the "Justice Shares" Scheme and the rest through the Bourse Organization. The government will keep the title of the remaining 20 percent.It is widely believed that if current governmental organizations are privatized they will need to become more efficient. At present many are not profitable due to large numbers of unnecessary employees hired by the government to reduce unemployment. Furthermore, many of these companies are subsidized by oil revenues. True privatization will inevitably lead to many unpopular job cuts and large scale lay offs.The current privatization effort calls for an initial public offering (IPO) of five percent of the firms being privatized. Once the five percent is public, it will establish a market price that further offerings can be based on. According to a study conducted by the IMF in 18 countries, privatization adds 2 percent to the government's GDP per annum.