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Privatization in Iran | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privatization_in_Iran 00:02:09 1 The Iranian constitution 00:03:47 2 Background 00:03:56 2.1 Iranian Revolution and Iran–Iraq War (1979–88) 00:05:24 2.2 Rafsanjani government (1989–97) 00:06:14 2.3 Khatami government (1997–2005) 00:07:48 2.4 Ahmadinejad government (2005–2013) 00:10:03 2.5 Rouhani government (2013–) 00:11:36 3 "Justice shares" plan 00:12:30 3.1 Implementation 00:13:14 3.2 Distribution 00:14:57 4 Criticism 00:15:40 5 Shares for workers 00:16:16 6 Iranian expatriates role 00:17:29 6.1 Investments 00:18:16 6.2 Expatriate fund 00:18:56 7 Foreign investment 00:19:23 7.1 Offshore fund 00:20:11 8 Top 100 Iranian companies 00:22:38 8.1 Valuation 00:23:21 9 Major companies listed for privatization 00:23:52 9.1 Banking and insurance 00:25:32 9.2 Industry 00:26:17 9.3 Utilities 00:27:27 9.4 Mines & metals 00:28:03 9.5 Transport 00:28:57 9.6 Telecommunication 00:31:07 9.7 Oil, gas and petrochemicals 00:35:20 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9774191965767909 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005–2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange. The privatization effort is primarily backed by reformist members of the Iranian government and society who hope that privatization can bring about economic and social change. In 2007, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei requested that government officials speed up implementation of the policies outlined in the amendment of Article 44, and move towards economic privatization. Khamenei also suggested that ownership rights should be protected in courts set up by the Justice Ministry; the hope was that this new protection would give an additional measure of security and encourage private investment. Despite these statements, true official backing for privatization remains very slow due to political reasons. Some 80 percent of the companies subject to Article 44 of the Constitution would be transferred to public ownership, 40 percent of which will be conducted through the "Justice Shares" Scheme and the rest through the Bourse Organization. The government will keep the title of the remaining 20 percent.It is widely believed that if current governmental organizations are privatized they will need to become more efficient. At present many are not profitable due to large numbers of unnecessary employees hired by the government to reduce unemployment. Furthermore, many of these companies are subsidized by oil revenues. True privatization will inevitably lead to many unpopular job cuts and large scale lay offs.The current privatization effort calls for an initial public offering (IPO) of five percent of the firms being privatized. Once the five percent is public, it will establish a market price that further offerings can be based on. According to a study conducted by the IMF in 18 countries, privatization adds 2 percent to the government's GDP per annum.
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